Around 380 BC, Plato created his ideal city state. In The Republic, he imagined a state that would uphold the just, the right, and the fair. In the book, he idealized everything; from the way kids are raised, to the city quarters, to the form of government.

In The Republic, Plato claimed that a government should consist of sages, of philosophers. He called those people guardians. They were people who would dedicate their entire lives to the state, who would have little to no material possessions, educated in all subjects, the most important being philosophy. He considered those people “men of gold” and they would be discovered during the rigorous educational system in place.